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方式狀語從句還是表語從句
作者:李  翔    文章來源:本站原創    點擊數:    更新時間:2009/12/19    
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方式狀語從句還是表語從句

                   

本站特約作者     

 

目佳先生在“英語語法網”(www.hnbuk.tw/Article/200812/1057.html)發表了自己的看法:

看法之一《薄冰高級英語語法》(世界知識出版社20029月第7次印刷) 16.8狀語從句:方式狀語從句(adverbial clause of manner):方式狀語從句表示動作的方式,其所用的關聯詞有 as, as if, as though, the way, how 等,多位于主句之后。例:(143)He looks as if he’s tired. 他像是累了。

我們認為 He looks as if he’s tired. 中的 as if 引導的從句不宜分析為方式狀語從句,而應分析為表語從句。因為 look 在此為系動詞,而非實義動詞,它后面應接表語,意義才完整。另外,《薄冰高級英語語法》認為方式狀語從句表示動作的方式,而He looks as if he’s tired.中根本沒有動作動詞,所以也就無所謂動作的方式

看法之二:《朗文英語語法》(外語教學與研究出版社20023月第16次印刷)1.47.2節:在be, seem等后面的as ifas though方式狀語從句在動詞 be ()act (行動)appear (出現)behave (舉動)feel (感覺)look ()seem(好像)smell ()sound (聽起來)taste (嘗起來) 等后面也可以由連詞as ifas though來引導,如:

I feel as if / as though I’m floating on air. 我感到好像漂浮在空中一樣。

注意:也可以用在 it 結構后面:

It sounds as if / as though the situation will get worse. 聽起來好像情況會惡化似的。

It feels as if / as though it’s going to rain. (i.e. I feel that this is going to happen) 這天氣給人的感覺好像是就要下雨了。(即我感覺這事即將發生。)

我們認為說“方式狀語從句在動詞 be (是,feel (感覺)look () seem (好像)smell ()sound(聽起來)taste (嘗起來) 等后面也可以由連詞as ifas though來引導”似乎不妥,因為be ()feel (感覺)look ()seem (好像)smell ()sound (聽起來)taste (嘗起來)等都是連系動詞,它們后面接的 as if / as though 從句應是表語從句,而不是方式狀語從句。

實際上,中外的語法專家幾乎都一致認為上述提到的動詞 be ()等之后所跟的as if / as though 從句是方式狀語從句,而不是表語從句。請看例證:

1. 張克禮在《英語語法難題集釋》(天津人民出版社 19889月第1)p455上進行了明確的闡述:

問:You look as if you slept badly. 中 as if 引導的是狀語從句還是表語從句?

答:是狀語從句。look在這里不是連系動詞,而是全動詞(連系動詞作實義動詞時,稱全動詞)

Quirk在談到這類從句時說as if as though引導表示有假設情況的比較狀語從句( as if and as though introduce adverbial clause indicating comparison with some hypothetical circumstance.—p755 )

He looks as if he’s sick: fetch the doctor.

Curme 說:它們(動詞look, seem be)不是連系動詞(copulas),而是全動詞(full verbs)(p.282):

He looks(=have an appearance, acts) as if he were going through a great crisis.

They seemed(=seemed to act) as if they had never missed Sylvia.

It seemed to me(=impressed me) as if they had never missed Sylvia.

It was(seemed) almost as if people had sensed at once that she could never be held accountable for what she said and did.

Palmer 也認為在這種結構中 be, look, seem為實義動詞,并與其他可用于這種句型的實義動詞相提并論,說這種句型主要動詞有:act, appear, be, behave, feel, look, seem, sound, talk, taste, treat(sy. sg.)(p.283)

It looks (behaves, seems, etc.) as if it were here. (it would rain, etc.)

Kruisinga 也認為as if-從句為比較狀語從句:

And it certainly looks as if something dreadful would happen to Miss Thong.(Part II, 3 p.413 )

與此相似, “It seemsetc. that ”結構中的seems等也是實義動詞。that-從句為主語從句,it為形式主語。Hornbythat-從句出現在seem appear, happen, chance fellow后時,前面的it為先行it(introductory it)(p.23):

It would seem (that) the rumours have some truth in them.

It appears (that) the plane did not land at Rome.

It seemed (to me) (that) you’re not really interested.

Could it be that the sound of her heart beat is vital factor? (English Through Reading p.32)

It may be that in having that I am really wise.(ib., p.131)

It cannot be that he was speaking falsely for he was a god and can not lie.(ib., p.132)

但是,LDCE認為seem, appear等的這種用法為實義動詞,be為連系動詞(實際上be與上述動詞用法一樣,沒有必要把be分出來):

It seems (=appears to be true) as if there will be an election soon.(p.1007)

It would seem that there is no way out of our difficulty. (ib.)

It appears (=seems to be true)(that) she will win.(=It appears as if she will win.)(p.39)

It’s (as a connecting verb) as if we had never even started.(p.77)

連系動詞與不及物實義動詞是不同的,連系動詞必須接表語,不及物動詞意義本身就完全了。seem, appear等作連系動詞時,that-從句既可以放在句首又可放在句末;作實義動詞時,that-從句不能放在句首,只能放在seem等后:

 

That he will be on time seems doubtful.

It seems doubtful that he will be on time. (Liles p.123)

 

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