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1986-1990年考研翻譯題及參考答案
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1990年考研翻譯題及參考答案

 

Section III English-Chinese Translation

Translate the following passage into Chinese. Only the underlined sentences are to be translated. (20 points)

People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. (21) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture. ”

(22) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (23) That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.

Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.

Those who support the “nurture” theory, that is, they advocate education, are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. (24) The behaviorists maintain that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic, intelligence, offered by the two theories. (25) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say: They don’t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand, behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. (26) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (27) In the United States, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature” proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. (28) Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.(www.hnbuk.tw)

Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.

21. 他們想要說明,為什么我們具有某些性格特征和表現出某些行為。

22. 在這場爭論中,贊成天性一方的那些人認為,我們的性格特征和行為模式大多是由生物因素所決定的。

23. 這種理論的核心是,我們的環境同我們的才能、性格特征和行為即使有什么關系的話,也是微不足道的。

24. 行為主義者堅信,人像象機器一樣,對環境的刺激作出反應,這是他們行為的基礎。

25. 支持天性論的人堅持說,我們生來就具有一定的學習才能,這是由生物因素決定的。

26. 行為主義者認為,如果一個兒童在有許多刺激物的環境里成長,而這些刺激物能夠發展其作出適當反應的能力,那么,這個兒童將會有更高的智力發展。

27. 在美國,黑人在標準化智力測試中的成績常常低于白人。

28. 相反,行為主義者認為,成績的差異是由于黑人常常被剝奪了白人在教育及其它環境方面所享有的許多有利條件。

 

 

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